The first hall of the National Gallery of Art’s permanent exposition is dedicated to the beginning of the 20th century. On 9 January 1907, the First Lithuanian Art Exhibition was opened in Vilnius. On 15 September of the same year, the Lithuanian Art Society was established, which saw its mission in developing national art, gathering together and supporting Lithuanian artists scattered in various countries, educating the society, and collecting folk art. The example of Lithuanians led to the unification of Russian, Jewish and Polish artists. As a result, a multinational Vilnius Art Society was established in 1908. At the beginning of the 20th century, these two interacting institutions became the first art circles to be active in Vilnius.
In the exposition Epochų sankirtoje (At the Crossroads of Epochs), the works of M. K. Čiurlionis are exhibited alongside those who were active in the then art circles as well as those who put the foundations of modern art at the beginning of the 20th century (Stanisław Bohusz-Siestrzeńcewicz, Petras Kalpokas, Petras Rimša, Ferdynand Ruszczyc, Kazimieras Stabrauskas, Justinas Vienožinskis, and Antanas Žmuidzinavičius).